(Rhyme, Internal Rhyme, Alliteration, Onomatopoeia)
The word is meant to be heard. Poems are for reading aloud. Build them that way. Make a poem work the audience's ears through rhyme, consonance, assonance, alliteration, onomatopoeia and wordplay.
isn’t just things that end with the same sound. Those are standard rhymes. But rhyming also includes assonance (internal rhymes), consonance ("slant rhymes"), and rhymes of more than one syllable (multisyllabic rhymes).Multisyllabic RhymesA note on multisyllabic rhymes: If the last syllable of a word isn’t accented, like in the word "potato" ("poh-TAY-toe"), then you have to also rhyme the syllable that is accented: e.g., "potato" and "Plato," not just "potato" and "go." It's okay to use two words for this. ("potato" and "clay toe")
Assonance (also known as Internal Rhyme)
means having the same vowel sounds in syllables. So “lip” rhymes with “tick.” “The capable maker of drapes” has lots of “ay’ sounds.
Consonance (also known as Slant Rhymes)
means having similar patterns of consonants; only the vowels vary. For example, paste, post, pest and past have consonance with each other.W.H. Auden:
You are the one whose part it is to lean,for whom it is not good to be alone.
Laugh warmly turning shyly in the hallor climb with bare knees the volcanic hill…
means repeating sounds – either vowels or consonants. So the “capable maker of drapes” is also an example of alliteration, but so is “the cross-eyed cutter of cookies.”
If you want to get extra-skilled with alliteration, you’ll notice sounds in a real-life scene – like repeating “sh” sounds of a breeze through trees, or “ch” sounds of a train – and repeat them in a poem about that subject. (Tennyson’s nature hums: “The moan of doves in immemorial elms/ and murmuring of innumerable bees.”)
(literally: “name-making”) is words that sound like what they mean. Quack, moo, buzz and murmur are examples others once made and lazy people use. You can make original onamatopoeia like “the shoes on the court went reet! reet! like baby birds.” Onamatopoeia is usually italicized when used.
Write two examples of each of the sound elements above, in the form of full lines of poetry, as follows:
1. A rhyming couplet (two lines that rhyme at the ends) using multisyllabic rhymes, where the last syllable of the rhyming words are not accented:
3. A pair of lines full of internal rhymes (assonance), not regular rhymes:
5. A pair of lines full of slant rhymes (consonance), not regular rhymes:
7. One original line full of alliteration (like a new tongue twister):
9. One line that creates an original example of onamatopoeia (invents a spelling for a sound in the world):
Special bonus: Spell "onamatopoeia" without looking at the word:
Examples of Sound Elements at Work
`Twas brillig, and the slithy toves
Did gyre and gimble in the wabe:
All mimsy were the borogoves,
And the mome raths outgrabe.
" Beware the Jabberwock, my son!
The jaws that bite, the claws that catch!
Beware the Jubjub bird, and shun
The frumious Bandersnatch!"
He took his vorpal sword in hand:
Long time the manxome foe he sought --
So rested he by the Tumtum tree,
And stood awhile in thought.
And, as in uffish thought he stood,
The Jabberwock, with eyes of flame,
Came whiffling through the tulgey wood,
And burbled as it came!
--Lewis Carroll, 1872
It was all a dream
I used to read Word Up magazine
Salt'n'Pepa and Heavy D up in the limousine
Hangin' pictures on my wall
Every Saturday: Rap Attack, Mr. Magic, Marley Marl
…Born sinner, the opposite of a winner
Remember when I used to eat sardines for dinner
… Super Nintendo, Sega Genesis
When I was dead broke, man I couldn't picture this
50 inch screen, money green leather sofa
Got two rides, a limousine with a chauffeur
Phone bill about two G's flat
No need to worry, my accountant handles that
… Thinkin' back on my one-room shack
Now my mom pimps an Ac' with minks on her back
And she loves to show me off, of course
Smiles every time my face is up in The Source
We used to fuss when the landlord dissed us
No heat, wonder why Christmas missed us
Birthdays was the worst days
Now we sip champagne when we thirst-ay
Uh, damn right I like the life I live
'Cause I went from negative to positive
And it's all good!.
--Biggie Smalls (a.k.a. Notorious B.I.G.)
I caught this morning morning's minion, king-
dom of daylight's dauphin, dapple-dawn-drawn Falcon, in his riding
Of the rolling level underneath him steady air, and striding
High there, how he rung upon the rein of a wimpling wing
In his ecstasy! then off, off forth on swing,
As a skate's heel sweeps smooth on a bow-bend: the hurl and gliding
Rebuffed the big wind. My heart in hiding
Stirred for a bird, -- the achieve of; the mastery of the thing!
Brute beauty and valour and act, oh, air, pride, plume, here
Buckle! And the fire that breaks from thee then, a billion
Times told lovelier, more dangerous, O my chevalier!
No wonder of it: shéer plód makes plough down sillion
Shine, and blue-bleak embers, ah my dear,
Fall, gall themselves, and gash gold-vermillion.
--Gerard Manley Hopkins
I like hot days, hot days,
Sweat is what you got days
Bugs buzzin from cousin to cousin
Running and ripping
Catch the one you love days
Old men sleeping
Lazy days, daisies lay
Beaming and dreaming
Of hot days, hot days,
Sweat is what you got days
--Walter Dean Myers (b.1937)