Citing Sources and Incorporating Quotes
Any argument or research paper should be supported with quoted material that’s given proper credit. Even when not using quotes, you should cite your sources in a bibliography and/or footnotes. Here’s what you need to know.
Making a Bibliography
· Add a separate page to the back of your essay. Title it “Bibliography” or “Sources Used” in bold. Then list all the sources you read to get the information in your paper.
· Let the internet help. Go to easybib or an equivalent and follow the steps to get MLA format for anything from a website to a book to an image. Then copy and paste those citations into your paper. Or go to the Purdue Owl page for guidelines on how to cite sources yourself.
· Author Last Name, First Name, "Put a Web Page Title in Quotes." Italicize the Website Name. Publisher Name, Date Published, Date accessed.
This means don’t just have a context sentence, period, quote, period, commentary, period. Blend your context and quote together in one (or all) of the following three ways:
· With a colon. State the idea that the quote will illustrate, then put a colon, then the quote. For example:
Mitchell creates a future world where brand names have become ordinary, uncapitalized words: “Mr. Chang waited in a plain ford” (p. 313).
· With a comma after “the author writes/says/indicates/etc.” For example:
Mitchell creates a future world where brand names have become ordinary, uncapitalized words, as when he writes, “Mr. Chang waited in a plain ford” (p. 313).
· By splicing the quote into your sentence. Use your subject and the quote’s predicate, for example. Don’t use a comma before the quote (unless it’s the second comma from something bracketed earlier). If a listener closed her eyes, she wouldn’t be able to tell where the quotation marks fall. For example:
Mitchell creates a future world where brand names have become ordinary, uncapitalized words, as when one character “waited in a plain ford” (p. 313) for another.
Put the page number in parentheses after the quote. If the quote ends your sentence (or a clause), put the period (or a comma) after the parentheses.
Using Footnotes or Endnotes
Instead of a bibliography, your teacher may allow footnotes or endnotes. In these, you put a superscript number1 after a quote or piece of information. Then, in the footer of the page (for footnotes) or the end of the paper (for endnotes), use the same MLA format as in the bibliography to cite sources.
To Do: In your next paper that uses sources, incorporate quotations all three ways and include a correctly-formatted bibliography with at least 3 sources.